In GURPS firing a gun is an Attack, All-Out Attack or Move and Attack action. This may or may not be preceded by one or more seconds of Aim action. In Transhuman Space we have the added complication that smart ammunition, including homing bullets are relatively commonplace. Any firing in non-homing mode will simply be called “Shooting” in the following passages. “Shooting” includes firing beam weapons, firing “dumb” ammunition and firing smart ammunition in a non-homing mode.
Shooting rules for GURPs are spread across several volumes. At the minimum you need both volumes of the Basic set and High-Tech. Changing Times and Tactical Shooting are also desirable and Gun-Fu and Ultra-Tech can be useful. Even with all of these how the rules are specifically applied to Transhuman Space may not be clear.
Many weapons in Transhuman Space cannot use smart ammunition. These range from zip guns and shoukwans to relatively sophisticated weapons like the Xuan Feng and laser weapons. The following three firing modes apply to these and to smart ammunition used in “dumb” mode.
Shooting without using the sights is a Move and Attack or Attack action, never an All-Out Attack. There can be no Aim action before. Since such shots do not require seeing the sights -1 in darkness penalties can be ignored at ranges up to Per in yards. A targeting laser provides a +1 modifier. Other targeting aids including HUD links give no bonus to unsighted shooting. Items such as goggles, dive masks, gasmasks etc give -1 modifier to unsighted shooting. Items such as VR/AR visors and spectacles give no modifiers since many TS-era citizens wear them daily so are very familiar with them.
Sighted shooting is an All-out attack so +1 to Guns, Gunner or Beam Weapon skill. Goggles, dive masks etc give -4 to sighted shooting. You need to be able to see the sights so darkness penalties apply. A HUD-link or Improved Visibility Sights negate -1 of darkness penalties. The GM may allow that a HUD-link acts as a micro-reflex sight so gives +1 to Guns up to 50 yards. Some HUD-links perform at even longer ranges.
Deliberately Aimed shooting is represented by an Aim followed by All-Out Attack. The bonus for Aim usually only applies to the next attack (p. B372). The GM may allow shooters to retain half their weapon’s base Acc (round down) on subsequent sighted shots against the same target after using aimed shooting. Shooters with braced weapons may add full base Acc when firing at RoF 1; mounted weapons on flexible or fixed mounts may add full base Acc even when firing at a higher RoF.
In addition to these modes some weapons in Transhuman Space have a fourth mode of shooting using their homing ammunition.
The basic rules [p.B413] tell us that to be used as a homer a projectile must be aimed first. During the Aim manoeuvre the shooter must successfully roll against Artillery (Guided Missile) skill. Transhuman Space: Changing Times [p.64] tells us to make this roll with the appropriate Guns or Gunner skill instead. For clarity I will call the Aim manoeuvre with a success roll an “Aim and Lock”. If the Aim and Lock is successful the projectile(s) are fired with a Ready action. The attack roll is made by the projectile(s) when they reach the target, which may be the same turn or in subsequent turns. Changing Times tells us that the projectile(s) Attack is Homing (Vision). Optionally a Critical Failure in the Aim and Lock roll negates any Aim bonuses (A5) for the following shot.
Homing (Vision) implies that projectiles have night vision no better than an average human. Technological device and bio-mods mean that shooters in TS will often see their targets much better than their bullets! The GM may allow that military or police issued ammunition have some level of Night Vision. This will be more common in calibres in widescale military use. 5.6mm, 6.6mm, 7.5mm and 10mm rounds may have Night Vision 4. The tiny 4mm rounds only have Night Vision 2. Larger calibre missiles may have even better Night Vision, depending on role and cost. Some will have multi-spectral capabilities. Budget homing ammunition or that from dubious sources may have no Night Vision.
What is not made clear in the sourcebooks is which, if any, modifiers apply to the Aim and Lock and the Homing Attack rolls. Logically locking onto a distant, fast target would be more difficult than on a larger, closer target. If you are on fire this may or may not distract you from carefully aiming. If you are a cybershell or wearing an armoured powersuit you might ignore a little bit of fire! Rather than giving rules for every possibility and variation of circumstance the GM should be logical and waive modifiers that do not apply.
Another question that arises is what happens if you fail an Aim and Lock? The original TS sourcebook and TS:Changing Times both make it clear that homing bullets and other projectiles may be fired without an Aim action before. If you still choose to fire the next action will be an Attack, All-Out Attack or Move and Attack. Another roll against Guns, Artillery or Gunner is made and the projectile(s) are treated as a non-homing “dumb” attack. Note that in Transhuman Space homing projectiles fired without an Aim and Lock still count as “stabilized” so treat ranges as 30% less than actual for purposes of determining range penalties. Gestalt ammo also counts as stabilized (TS:CT p.64 and TS p.157)
Many weapons mount targeting lasers. Beam weapons often have a targeting spot option. A targeting laser adds +1 to skill, even if an Aim action was not taken. This presumes that a shooter can see the spot. If the laser was set to infrared you will need vision sensitive in this range to see it. Targeting lasers are of limited use underwater. Green is hard to see, red does not travel far and water absorbs infrared.
Laser homing ammunition locks on to a target designated by a laser. This is usually the firing weapon’s targeting laser but can be another source. If the laser is moved or deactivated after firing the rounds continue to home in on their target. Laser homing ammunition works with both visible and IR lasers. Cheap, knock-off or blackmarket ammunition may only work in the visible but the buyer may not be aware of this! Laser homing ammunition must be used with a designating laser. Without a laser it is dumb, stabilized ammunition, not homing. Smoke or other factors may prevent laser designation. The targeting laser gives a +1 to Aim and Lock and designation gives +1 to the Homing Attack roll.
Gestalt ammunition counts as stabilized so treat ranges as 30% less than actual for purposes of determining range penalties. Rapid fire bonus to hit (A7) is for 1.5x the number of rounds actually fired. Recoil is reduced by 1 for determining number of actual hits.
Below is a list of Ranged Attack Modifiers modified and annotated for use with Transhuman Space 4e.
When making a ranged attack, homing attack or Aim and Lock figure your effective skill by:
1. Taking your base skill with your ranged weapon. A Homing attack uses a base skill of 10.
2. Applying the target’s Size Modifier (SM).
3. Modifying for the target’s range and speed; see Size and Speed/Range Table (p. 550). Remember, add range in yards to speed in yards/sec and take modifier for the total. Use actual range for Aim and Lock or firing of “dumb” unstabilized rounds. Use 0.7 of actual range for stabilized and Gestalt ammo. Ignore range for Homing Attacks.
4. Applying the relevant conditional modifiers below. Modifiers are cumulative, but combined visibility penalties cannot exceed -10. If any modifier marked with an asterisk (*) applies, adjusted skill after all modifiers cannot exceed 9.
A roll of this number, or less, is a hit. If using rapid fire, you score one extra hit for every full multiple of Recoil by which you make your attack roll.
A1. Attacker’s Maneuver
A1 modifiers do not apply to Aim and Lock or Homing Attack.
All-Out Attack (Determined): +1
Move and Attack: -2 or -Bulk of weapon, whichever is worse
Ranged Rapid Attack: 2 shots at -6 each. Uses an Attack or All-out Attack and requires a weapon with RoF 2+.
A2. Attacker’s Situation
A2 modifiers affect Aim and Lock and Shooting. They have no effect on Homing attack roll.
Affliction (coughing, retching, etc.): see Afflictions (p. B428)
Afflictions that add a penalty to DX add an equal penalty to Guns, Gunner, Beam weapon or Artillery skill for Aim and Lock or Shooting.
Bad footing: -2 or more (GM’s option)
Close combat: a penalty equal to the weapon’s Bulk statistic (see Weapons for Close Combat, p. 391)
Aim and Lock cannot be attempted if in close combat. No effect on Homing attack roll of projectiles already in flight.
Damaged weapon: -HP of injury received last turn (maximum -4)
Major distraction (e.g., all clothes on fire): -3 or more (GM’s option)
Minor distraction (e.g., part of clothes on fire): -2
Shock: -HP of injury received last turn (maximum -4)
ST below that required for weapon: -1 per point of deficit.
A3. Attacking from Moving Vehicle or Mount
The increased relative motion between the firer and the target will affect the accuracy of homing projectiles. A3 modifiers are applied to Aim and Lock, Shooting and Homing Attack.
If weapon is not in a stabilized mount, the combined bonus for Accuracy, Aim, bracing, and targeting systems cannot exceed the vehicle’s SR.
Air vehicle: -1 if handheld weapon, 0 otherwise
Exposed rider hanging on side of vehicle/mount and shooting over/under it: -6
Ground vehicle, good road: -1 if handheld weapon, 0 otherwise
Ground vehicle, bad road: 0 if stabilized turret or stabilized open mount; -1 if fixed mount, hardpoint, or carriage; -2 if external open mount; -3 if handheld weapon
Ground vehicle, off-road: -1 if stabilized turret or stabilized open mount; -2 if fixed mount, hardpoint, or carriage; -3 if external open mount; -4 if handheld weapon
Space vehicle: 0
Turning in exposed saddle/seat of vehicle/ mount to fire at foe behind: -4
Vehicle/mount dodged last turn and you’re not operator/rider: -2, or -4 if flying
Vehicle/mount failed control roll: penalty equal to margin of failure
Water vehicle, calm water: 0 if stabilized turret or stabilized open mount; -1 if fixed mount, hardpoint, or carriage; -2 if external open mount; -3 if handheld weapon
Water vehicle, rough water: -1 if stabilized turret or stabilized open mount; -2 if fixed mount, hardpoint, or carriage; -3 if external open mount; -4 if handheld weapon
A4. Opportunity Fire
Aim and Lock can only be used with Opportunity fire if the area watched is only 1 hex (no modifier). The projectile is considered to have locked onto a geographical location rather than an individual. The homing round will hit anyone or anything that happens to be in that hex. This mode of using homing projectiles cannot be used with targeting specific body parts or areas.
Checking target before firing: -2
Hexes watched: 0 if 1 hex; -1 if 2 hexes; -2 if 3-4 hexes or a line; -3 if 5-6 hexes; -4 if 7-10 hexes; -5 if 11+ hexes watched
A5. Aiming and Targeting.
The A5 modifiers come into effect “after the trigger is pulled”. A5 modifiers are not applied to Aim and Lock. They are applied to Homing Attack and are applied to Shooting if an Aim action preceded it.
Aim for one turn: +Accuracy of weapon
Scope: +1 per second of Aim, to a maximum of the scope’s bonus
Extra Aim: +1 for 2 seconds, +2 for 3+ seconds. Bonus cannot exceed weapon Acc or scope bonus, whichever is lower.
Range known. +3 to Acc or Scope bonus. Requires a Ready action to adjust sights or switch aimpoint.
Laser sight: +1 (also gives this +1 bonus if no Aim action preceded the shot)
Match-Grade Ammunition: +1 to weapon Acc.
Braced weapon. Weapon rested on sandbag, car, wall or other object; pistol used two-handed; long arm used prone and with a bipod: +1 if stationary and took a turn to Aim.
Pistol used two-handed: +1 if took a turn to Aim. Multiply minimum ST by 0.8 and reduce Bulk by 1.
Bipod: Use of a bipod changes minimum ST for weapon to ⅔rds its value. Long arm used prone and with a bipod: +1 if stationary and took a turn to Aim.
Tripod or similar flexible mounting, arm mount etc: +2 Acc for bracing.
Fixed Mount such as hardpoint, turret etc: +4 Acc for bracing.
Shooting Long arm with sling: Treat as braced. Takes one Ready manoeuvre per -1 Bulk of the weapon to prepare; a successful Fast-Draw (Long Arm) roll halves this time (round down). Leaving the position takes two Ready manoeuvres – or one with Quick-Sheathe (Long Arm) and a successful Fast-Draw (Long Arm) roll.
Firing a long arm with the stock folded or removed improves Bulk by 1, but removes stability that resting it against the shoulder provides. Apply -1 to Acc and +1 to Rcl (unless Rcl is 1), and multiply ST by 1.2, rounding up. Using any sling or a shoulder rig on a stockless long arm avoids the Rcl and ST modifications, but not the Acc penalty. It does not count as braced.
Vehicular targeting system: +1 to +3 if shooter took a turn to Aim
Unfamiliar weapon or targeting system: -2
On a moving vehicle, the combined bonus for Accuracy, Aim, bracing, and targeting systems still can’t exceed the vehicle’s SR, unless stabilized (p. B548).
The combined bonus for sights, scopes, and/or targeting computers cannot exceed the value of the weapon’s base Accuracy.
A scope or similar device gives a +1 bonus to hit per full doubling of magnification if you take one or more Aim or Aim and Lock manoeuvres.
With a fixed-power scope, you must Aim for at least as many seconds as the scope bonus. With a variable-power scope, you may Aim for fewer seconds but this reduces the bonus by a like amount.
The Acc bonus and related bonuses are lost if any of the following occurs:
You lose sight of your target;
Make an attack roll;
Move more than the step allowed by the aim manoeuvre;
Attempt a defense roll;
Fail the will roll after being injured;
Choose a different maneuver from aim (e.g., ready to reload);
Switch weapons or unbrace a braced weapon,
Switch between sights, or otherwise change your weapon’s mode of use.
A6. Other Actions by Attacker
Affect Aim and Lock, Shooting. Affect Homing Attack unless stated.
Unfamiliar aiming system, mounting, action etc: -2
Weapon in bad repair: -4 or more
Dual-Weapon Attack: -4/-8 with primary/ off hand (-4/-4 with Ambidexterity)
Off-hand attack: -4 (no penalty with Ambidexterity)
Reflex sight adds +1 Guns/ Gunner/ Beam weapon skill at 300yds or less.
One handed shooting of long arm: Multiply ST by 1.5 or 1.2 if sling used. Round up. Weapon becomes unready unless shooter has 2x weapon ST or 1.7x with sling.
One handed shooting for bullpup long arm or long arm with magazine in grip: Multiply ST by 1.2, rounding up or no modifier if sling used. Weapon becomes unready unless shooter has 1.7x weapon ST or 1.5x with sling.
Long arm fired one handed and held against heavy object. No ST multipliers but does not count as braced (A5).
Limp-wristed Gangsta-poseur shooting: -1 (must be unsighted shooting. Cannot be braced and no bonus for two-handed grip)
Pop-up attack: -2, and no Aim possible. (Cannot be used with Homing attack)
A7. Rapid fire or Multiple Projectiles:
A7 modifiers are “after the trigger is pulled” so are applied to Shooting and Homing Attack, not Aim and Lock.
Gestalt ammunition gets the bonus for 1.5x the number of rounds actually fired. A 10 round burst gets the +3 bonus for 15 rounds.
0 if 2-4 shots;
+1 if 5-8 shots;
+2 if 9-12 shots;
+3 if 13-16 shots;
+4 if 17-24 shots;
+5 if 25-49 shots;
+6 if 50-99 shots;
+7 if 100-199 shots;
+8 if 200-399 shots;
+9 if 400-799 shots;
+10 if 800-1,599 shots;
+11 if 1,600-3,199 shots;
+12 if 3,200-6,399 shots;
Fast Firing (Pump or lever actions up to double tabled RoF, Semi-automatics, beam weapons and double action revolvers up to triple). Rcl increased by 1, Attack roll modifier equal to actual number of rounds fired.
A8 modifiers apply to Aim and Lock, Shooting and Homing Attack.
To attack hit locations or weapons, use the penalties under Melee Attack Modifiers (p. B547). If the target has cover, you can either choose to take no penalty and roll hit location randomly (shots that hit a covered location always strike full cover, and hit partial cover on 4-6 on 1d) or target an exposed hit location (add an extra -2 if only partly exposed).
Very light cover (solid cover exposing ¾ of body): -1
Shooting through light cover (solid cover exposing ½ target): -2
Medium cover (Solid cover exposing just ⅓): -3
Heavy cover (solid cover ¼ or less exposed): -4
Targeting the face, hand(s) or weapon of an enemy firing from cover: no penalty for cover, usual penalty for body part (see below).
Target behind someone else: -4 per intervening figure
Target crouching, kneeling, sitting, or lying down: an extra -2 to hit torso, groin, or legs
Target only partly exposed: -2
Shooting at narrow apertures or object: Use SM of item.
Hit location for humans:
0 for torso,
-2 for arm or leg,
-3 for groin or pelvis,
-4 for hand or foot,
-5 for face,
-7 for skull; impaling and piercing attacks can target vitals at -3 or eyes at -9
Weapon, to damage: -5 to hit a reach “C” weapon (e.g., knife or pistol); -4 to hit a reach 1 weapon (e.g., broadsword, baton, bangstick); -3 to hit a reach 2+ weapon (e.g., spear or rifle)
A9 modifiers apply to Aim and Lock, Shooting and Homing Attack. Visual capabilities of the shooter and the homing round may differ!
Blind, target completely invisible, or in total darkness: -10*
Cannot see foe: -6, or -4 if you know his location to within 1 yard*
Partial darkness, fog, smoke, etc.: -1 to -9 (GM’s option)
Target has light concealment (e.g. bushes): -2
A Telescopic sight removes -1 of darkness penalties.
A Reflex sight removes -3 of darkness penalties. A micro reflex sight for a pistol removes -1.
Night Vision Goggles that limit depth perception: -3 (TS-era devices are likely to use holographic or AR technology that removes or reduces this penalty).